The Amazon SageMaker LinearLearner algorithm.

class sagemaker.LinearLearner(role, train_instance_count, train_instance_type, predictor_type, binary_classifier_model_selection_criteria=None, target_recall=None, target_precision=None, positive_example_weight_mult=None, epochs=None, use_bias=None, num_models=None, num_calibration_samples=None, init_method=None, init_scale=None, init_sigma=None, init_bias=None, optimizer=None, loss=None, wd=None, l1=None, momentum=None, learning_rate=None, beta_1=None, beta_2=None, bias_lr_mult=None, bias_wd_mult=None, use_lr_scheduler=None, lr_scheduler_step=None, lr_scheduler_factor=None, lr_scheduler_minimum_lr=None, normalize_data=None, normalize_label=None, unbias_data=None, unbias_label=None, num_point_for_scaler=None, margin=None, quantile=None, loss_insensitivity=None, huber_delta=None, early_stopping_patience=None, early_stopping_tolerance=None, num_classes=None, accuracy_top_k=None, f_beta=None, balance_multiclass_weights=None, **kwargs)


An Estimator for binary classification and regression.

Amazon SageMaker Linear Learner provides a solution for both classification and regression problems, allowing for exploring different training objectives simultaneously and choosing the best solution from a validation set. It allows the user to explore a large number of models and choose the best, which optimizes either continuous objectives such as mean square error, cross entropy loss, absolute error, etc., or discrete objectives suited for classification such as F1 measure, precision@recall, accuracy. The implementation provides a significant speedup over naive hyperparameter optimization techniques and an added convenience, when compared with solutions providing a solution only to continuous objectives.

This Estimator may be fit via calls to fit_ndarray() or fit(). The former allows a LinearLearner model to be fit on a 2-dimensional numpy array. The latter requires Amazon Record protobuf serialized data to be stored in S3.

To learn more about the Amazon protobuf Record class and how to prepare bulk data in this format, please consult AWS technical documentation:

After this Estimator is fit, model data is stored in S3. The model may be deployed to an Amazon SageMaker Endpoint by invoking deploy(). As well as deploying an Endpoint, deploy returns a LinearLearnerPredictor object that can be used to make class or regression predictions, using the trained model.

LinearLearner Estimators can be configured by setting hyperparameters. The available hyperparameters for LinearLearner are documented below. For further information on the AWS LinearLearner algorithm, please consult AWS technical documentation:

  • role (str) – An AWS IAM role (either name or full ARN). The Amazon SageMaker training jobs and APIs that create Amazon SageMaker endpoints use this role to access training data and model artifacts. After the endpoint is created, the inference code might use the IAM role, if accessing AWS resource.
  • train_instance_count (int) – Number of Amazon EC2 instances to use for training.
  • train_instance_type (str) – Type of EC2 instance to use for training, for example, ‘ml.c4.xlarge’.
  • predictor_type (str) – The type of predictor to learn. Either “binary_classifier” or
  • or "regressor". ("multiclass_classifier") –
  • binary_classifier_model_selection_criteria (str) – One of ‘accuracy’, ‘f1’, ‘f_beta’,
  • 'recall_at_target_precision', 'cross_entropy_loss', 'loss_function' ('precision_at_target_recall',) –
  • target_recall (float) – Target recall. Only applicable if binary_classifier_model_selection_criteria is precision_at_target_recall.
  • target_precision (float) – Target precision. Only applicable if binary_classifier_model_selection_criteria is recall_at_target_precision.
  • positive_example_weight_mult (float) – The importance weight of positive examples is multiplied by this constant. Useful for skewed datasets. Only applies for classification tasks.
  • epochs (int) – The maximum number of passes to make over the training data.
  • use_bias (bool) – Whether to include a bias field
  • num_models (int) – Number of models to train in parallel. If not set, the number of parallel models to train will be decided by the algorithm itself. One model will be trained according to the given training
  • parameter (regularization, optimizer, loss) –
  • num_calibration_samples (int) – Number of observations to use from validation dataset for doing model
  • calibration (finding the best threshold) –
  • init_method (str) – Function to use to set the initial model weights. One of “uniform” or “normal”
  • init_scale (float) – For “uniform” init, the range of values.
  • init_sigma (float) – For “normal” init, the standard-deviation.
  • init_bias (float) – Initial weight for bias term
  • optimizer (str) – One of ‘sgd’, ‘adam’, ‘rmsprop’ or ‘auto’
  • loss (str) – One of ‘logistic’, ‘squared_loss’, ‘absolute_loss’, ‘hinge_loss’,
  • 'eps_insensitive_absolute_loss', 'quantile_loss', 'huber_loss' or ('eps_insensitive_squared_loss',) –
  • or 'auto'. ('softmax_loss') –
  • wd (float) – L2 regularization parameter i.e. the weight decay parameter. Use 0 for no L2 regularization.
  • l1 (float) – L1 regularization parameter. Use 0 for no L1 regularization.
  • momentum (float) – Momentum parameter of sgd optimizer.
  • learning_rate (float) – The SGD learning rate
  • beta_1 (float) – Exponential decay rate for first moment estimates. Only applies for adam optimizer.
  • beta_2 (float) – Exponential decay rate for second moment estimates. Only applies for adam optimizer.
  • bias_lr_mult (float) – Allows different learning rate for the bias term. The actual learning rate for the
  • is learning rate times bias_lr_mult. (bias) –
  • bias_wd_mult (float) – Allows different regularization for the bias term. The actual L2 regularization weight
  • the bias is wd times bias_wd_mult. By default there is no regularization on the bias term. (for) –
  • use_lr_scheduler (bool) – If true, we use a scheduler for the learning rate.
  • lr_scheduler_step (int) – The number of steps between decreases of the learning rate. Only applies to learning rate scheduler.
  • lr_scheduler_factor (float) – Every lr_scheduler_step the learning rate will decrease by this quantity. Only applies for learning rate scheduler.
  • lr_scheduler_minimum_lr (float) – The learning rate will never decrease to a value lower than this.
  • lr_scheduler_minimum_lr – Only applies for learning rate scheduler.
  • normalize_data (bool) – Normalizes the features before training to have standard deviation of 1.0.
  • normalize_label (bool) – Normalizes the regression label to have a standard deviation of 1.0. If set for classification, it will be ignored.
  • unbias_data (bool) – If true, features are modified to have mean 0.0.
  • ubias_label (bool) – If true, labels are modified to have mean 0.0.
  • num_point_for_scaler (int) – The number of data points to use for calculating the normalizing and unbiasing terms.
  • margin (float) – the margin for hinge_loss.
  • quantile (float) – Quantile for quantile loss. For quantile q, the model will attempt to produce
  • such that true_label < prediction with probability q. (predictions) –
  • loss_insensitivity (float) – Parameter for epsilon insensitive loss type. During training and metric
  • any error smaller than this is considered to be zero. (evaluation,) –
  • huber_delta (float) – Parameter for Huber loss. During training and metric evaluation, compute L2 loss for
  • smaller than delta and L1 loss for errors larger than delta. (errors) –
  • early_stopping_patience (int) – the number of epochs to wait before ending training if no improvement is
  • The improvement is training loss if validation data is not provided, or else it is the validation (made.) –
  • or the binary classification model selection criteria like accuracy, f1-score etc. To disable early (loss) –
  • set early_stopping_patience to a value larger than epochs. (stopping,) –
  • early_stopping_tolerance (float) – Relative tolerance to measure an improvement in loss. If the ratio of
  • improvement in loss divided by the previous best loss is smaller than this value, early stopping will (the) –
  • the improvement to be zero. (consider) –
  • num_classes (int) – The number of classes for the response variable. Required when predictor_type is
  • and ignored otherwise. The classes are assumed to be labeled 0, .., num_classes - 1. (multiclass_classifier) –
  • accuracy_top_k (int) – The value of k when computing the Top K Accuracy metric for multiclass
  • An example is scored as correct if the model assigns one of the top k scores to the true (classification.) –
  • label.
  • f_beta (float) – The value of beta to use when calculating F score metrics for binary or multiclass
  • Also used if binary_classifier_model_selection_criteria is f_beta. (classification.) –
  • balance_multiclass_weights (bool) – Whether to use class weights which give each class equal importance in
  • loss function. Only used when predictor_type is multiclass_classifier. (the) –
  • **kwargs – base class keyword argument values.
repo_name = 'linear-learner'
repo_version = 1
classmethod attach(training_job_name, sagemaker_session=None)

Attach to an existing training job.

Create an Estimator bound to an existing training job, each subclass is responsible to implement _prepare_init_params_from_job_description() as this method delegates the actual conversion of a training job description to the arguments that the class constructor expects. After attaching, if the training job has a Complete status, it can be deploy() ed to create a SageMaker Endpoint and return a Predictor.

If the training job is in progress, attach will block and display log messages from the training job, until the training job completes.

  • training_job_name (str) – The name of the training job to attach to.
  • sagemaker_session (sagemaker.session.Session) – Session object which manages interactions with Amazon SageMaker APIs and any other AWS services needed. If not specified, the estimator creates one using the default AWS configuration chain.


>>> training_job_name =
Later on:
>>> attached_estimator = Estimator.attach(training_job_name)
>>> attached_estimator.deploy()
Returns:Instance of the calling Estimator Class with the attached training job.

Delete an Amazon SageMaker Endpoint.

Raises:ValueError – If the endpoint does not exist.
deploy(initial_instance_count, instance_type, endpoint_name=None, **kwargs)

Deploy the trained model to an Amazon SageMaker endpoint and return a sagemaker.RealTimePredictor object.

More information:

  • initial_instance_count (int) – Minimum number of EC2 instances to deploy to an endpoint for prediction.
  • instance_type (str) – Type of EC2 instance to deploy to an endpoint for prediction, for example, ‘ml.c4.xlarge’.
  • endpoint_name (str) – Name to use for creating an Amazon SageMaker endpoint. If not specified, the name of the training job is used.
  • **kwargs – Passed to invocation of create_model(). Implementations may customize create_model() to accept **kwargs to customize model creation during deploy. For more, see the implementation docs.

A predictor that provides a predict() method,

which can be used to send requests to the Amazon SageMaker endpoint and obtain inferences.

Return type:


fit(records, mini_batch_size=None, wait=True, logs=True, job_name=None)

Fit this Estimator on serialized Record objects, stored in S3.

records should be an instance of RecordSet. This defines a collection of S3 data files to train this Estimator on.

Training data is expected to be encoded as dense or sparse vectors in the “values” feature on each Record. If the data is labeled, the label is expected to be encoded as a list of scalas in the “values” feature of the Record label.

More information on the Amazon Record format is available at:

See record_set() to construct a RecordSet object from ndarray arrays.

  • records (RecordSet) – The records to train this Estimator on
  • mini_batch_size (int or None) – The size of each mini-batch to use when training. If None, a default value will be used.
  • wait (bool) – Whether the call should wait until the job completes (default: True).
  • logs (bool) – Whether to show the logs produced by the job. Only meaningful when wait is True (default: True).
  • job_name (str) – Training job name. If not specified, the estimator generates a default job name, based on the training image name and current timestamp.

Return the hyperparameters as a dictionary to use for training.

The fit() method, which trains the model, calls this method to find the hyperparameters.

Returns:The hyperparameters.
Return type:dict[str, str]

str – The model location in S3. Only set if Estimator has been fit().

record_set(train, labels=None, channel='train')

Build a RecordSet from a numpy ndarray matrix and label vector.

For the 2D ndarray train, each row is converted to a Record object. The vector is stored in the “values” entry of the features property of each Record. If labels is not None, each corresponding label is assigned to the “values” entry of the labels property of each Record.

The collection of Record objects are protobuf serialized and uploaded to new S3 locations. A manifest file is generated containing the list of objects created and also stored in S3.

The number of S3 objects created is controlled by the train_instance_count property on this Estimator. One S3 object is created per training instance.

  • train (numpy.ndarray) – A 2D numpy array of training data.
  • labels (numpy.ndarray) – A 1D numpy array of labels. Its length must be equal to the number of rows in train.
  • channel (str) – The SageMaker TrainingJob channel this RecordSet should be assigned to.

A RecordSet referencing the encoded, uploading training and label data.

Return type:



Return the Docker image to use for training.

The fit() method, which does the model training, calls this method to find the image to use for model training.

Returns:The URI of the Docker image.
Return type:str

Return a TrainingJobAnalytics object for the current training job.

transformer(instance_count, instance_type, strategy=None, assemble_with=None, output_path=None, output_kms_key=None, accept=None, env=None, max_concurrent_transforms=None, max_payload=None, tags=None, role=None)

Return a Transformer that uses a SageMaker Model based on the training job. It reuses the SageMaker Session and base job name used by the Estimator.

  • instance_count (int) – Number of EC2 instances to use.
  • instance_type (str) – Type of EC2 instance to use, for example, ‘ml.c4.xlarge’.
  • strategy (str) – The strategy used to decide how to batch records in a single request (default: None). Valid values: ‘MULTI_RECORD’ and ‘SINGLE_RECORD’.
  • assemble_with (str) – How the output is assembled (default: None). Valid values: ‘Line’ or ‘None’.
  • output_path (str) – S3 location for saving the transform result. If not specified, results are stored to a default bucket.
  • output_kms_key (str) – Optional. KMS key ID for encrypting the transform output (default: None).
  • accept (str) – The content type accepted by the endpoint deployed during the transform job.
  • env (dict) – Environment variables to be set for use during the transform job (default: None).
  • max_concurrent_transforms (int) – The maximum number of HTTP requests to be made to each individual transform container at one time.
  • max_payload (int) – Maximum size of the payload in a single HTTP request to the container in MB.
  • tags (list[dict]) – List of tags for labeling a transform job. If none specified, then the tags used for the training job are used for the transform job.
  • role (str) – The ExecutionRoleArn IAM Role ARN for the Model, which is also used during transform jobs. If not specified, the role from the Estimator will be used.

An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


An algorithm hyperparameter with optional validation. Implemented as a python descriptor object.


Return a LinearLearnerModel referencing the latest s3 model data produced by this Estimator.

class sagemaker.LinearLearnerModel(model_data, role, sagemaker_session=None)

Bases: sagemaker.model.Model

Reference LinearLearner s3 model data. Calling deploy() creates an Endpoint and returns a LinearLearnerPredictor

class sagemaker.LinearLearnerPredictor(endpoint, sagemaker_session=None)

Bases: sagemaker.predictor.RealTimePredictor

Performs binary-classification or regression prediction from input vectors.

The implementation of predict() in this RealTimePredictor requires a numpy ndarray as input. The array should contain the same number of columns as the feature-dimension of the data used to fit the model this Predictor performs inference on.

predict() returns a list of Record objects, one for each row in the input ndarray. The prediction is stored in the "predicted_label" key of the Record.label field.